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Review: Jean-Pierre Melville’s Army of Shadows Gets New Criterion Blu-ray

Melville’s somber saga of the French Resistance gets a satisfyingly tweaked restoration from the Criterion Collection.


Army of Shadows

Jean-Pierre Melville’s Army of Shadows is based on Belle de Jour author Joseph Kessel’s novel of the same name and the director’s own firsthand experiences as a member of the anti-Nazi insurgency. It’s at once a spiritual cousin to his prior bushido-gangster epic Le Samouraï—with which it shares a dreamy mood of fatalistic detachment—as well as an unsentimental vision of war as an arena in which men and women achieve self-actualization, suffer moral decay, and most of all, do whatever a given situation necessitates.

Amid this discordant backdrop, normal notions of good and evil are ultimately proven irrelevant for these men and women, as the salient issue becomes not the “rightness” or “wrongness” of their deeds as much as how said actions are performed in accordance with the austere, unspoken code of conduct that governs and defines their lives. Like Alain Delon’s Jef Costello from Le Samouraï, the Resistance fighters of Army of Shadows, led by Lino Ventura’s solemn Philippe Gerbier, are creatures of rigorous habit and adherence to duty, individuals whose willingness to follow through on their responsibilities marks them as conflicted figures in whom one can see both the terrible cost of, and the nobility achievable through, national conflict.

With Melville’s vividly expressive camera and rhythmic pacing matched by Pierre Lhomme and Walter Wottitz’s drearily overcast color palette, the film is, first and foremost, a prime example of the pre-Nouvelle Vague auteur’s atmospheric cinema, in which attention to tenor, tempo, and attitude are placed above all other concerns. Possessing only a moderate interest in clear-cut three-act storytelling, Army of Shadows works first and foremost on a sensory plane, with the director’s carefully modulated pans, edits, and juxtapositions coalescing into a mood that straddles the boundary between historical authenticity and stylistic artifice.

The opening image of a German army procession marching in front of the Arc de Triomphe and toward the camera boasts a quasi-documentary verisimilitude, and a subsequent scene involving Gerbier describing an internment camp’s politically and culturally diverse population exudes a from-the-horse’s-mouth genuineness. But much of the film seems to exist in the same underworld of Melville’s American-influenced crime pics, a darkness-enshrouded realm of furtive meetings and dangerous diplomacy. Amalgamating the seemingly real and unreal in its dim, dank, Nazi-occupied milieu, Melville creates a beguiling, off-kilter sense of experiential time and place via the weight of a clock’s portentous ticking, the bone-chilling dampness of a countryside hideout, and the affectionate camaraderie lurking beneath the stern exterior of communiqués between nationals struggling to reclaim their homeland.

Army of Shadows charts Gerbier and his comrades’ 1942 attempts at rebellious subterfuge and sabotage, though Melville doesn’t waste time on traditional character development; the audience gleans everything about the film’s protagonists through their actions, their eyes, and the way they carry themselves—not through exposition or monologues. Planning attacks, organizing get-togethers, and escaping capture, Melville’s guerrilla fighters move through the world with ritualistic automation, their behavioral exactitude and stoicism a defense mechanism against—or, perhaps, the easiest means of interacting with—the cold, inhospitable environment in which they find themselves reluctantly imprisoned.

This physical and cerebral precision is so intense that, as in a magnificent early getaway, the characters seem blessed with near-extrasensory kinship. Seated on a bench with another captive under the watchful eye of a German soldier, Gerbier only has to exchange a knowing glance and one curt instruction with the man in order to coordinate their flight to freedom, a beautifully orchestrated sequence in which the Melville’s circular cinematography seems to imply that the very origin of the idea for this breakout was simultaneously conceived by both men, their analogous deportment linking them in a brotherhood of like-minded intention.

As with so many of Melville’s noirs, doom lies in wait for those reckless or foolish enough to deviate from their prescribed obligations and loyalties, and Army of Shadows extends the filmmaker’s pessimism even further than is customary across his work. For one, it posits a corpse-lined cause fought for by people who, regardless of their actions, seem destined for the grave—a fact confirmed by both the misery-laced glance shared by Gerbier and Resistance matriarch Mathilde (Simone Signoret) before her unavoidable execution, as well as by the subsequent postscript detailing the revolutionary crew’s fate.

Melville’s outlook, though, ultimately reflects the fundamentally ambiguous realities of war, the ethical and emotional degeneration but also the honor. In the film’s most harrowing scene, Gerbier and his men, unequipped with either guns or a knife, efficiently execute a traitorous informer by means of silent strangulation with a bath towel. Refusing to avert his camera’s vigilant gaze from the horrifying undertaking, Melville captures the unbearable intimacy of murder and the terrible spiritual and psychological toll suffered by those mired in combat. And yet in this unremitting watchfulness, the director also locates the ascetic dignity in Gerbier’s willingness to make, and carry out, the ugliest of choices and sacrifices—a stark reminder that, for better and worse, what war creates is not simple heroes or villains but, rather, warriors.


Coming on the heels of the Criterion Collection’s 2011 Blu-ray, this second release is advertised as an HD restoration, though there’s precious little information in the accompanying booklet about the restoration process, apart from the fact that this newer restoration was also supervised by DP Pierre Lhomme. All things considered, the image does look slightly different. For one thing, the image itself seems a bit cropped compared to the earlier Blu-ray transfer. Colors lean to the blue rather than the predominant green of the previous edition. Flesh tones appear more naturalistic, grain is filmic, and the image looks a bit brighter overall. You get the same two audio choices, Master Audio stereo and LPCM mono, both of which are suitably supportive and convey Éric Demarsan’s punchy minimalist score.


Criterion carries over all the extras from its earlier DVD and Blu-ray editions without adding anything new. Film Scholar Ginette Vincendeau’s commentary may be starchy academic, but it packs in a wealth of information about Jean-Pierre Melville’s involvement in the Resistance, the changes he made to the source material, and the all-important sociopolitical context of the events depicted in the film. “Jean-Pierre Melville, Filmmaker” contains a brief TV interview with the director in which he espouses his warrior-like approach to filmmaking. There are two interviews from 2006 with Lhomme and editor Francoise Bonnot that focus on their working relations with Melville. “L’invite du Dimanche,” from 1969, is a not too terribly exciting roundtable discussion for French TV with cast and crew. More interesting is a 2005 documentary that features talking-head comments from Lhomme, Bonnot, actor Jean-Pierre Cassel, composer Eric Demarsan, and filmmakers Philippe Labro and Bertrand Tavernier. The tripartite section on “The Resistance” is compelling for purely historical reasons. The thick booklet carries over essays from Amy Taubin and Professor Roberto O. Paxton as well as a lengthy excerpt from Rui Nogero’s Melville on Melville.


Jean-Pierre Melville’s somber saga of the French Resistance gets a satisfyingly tweaked restoration from the Criterion Collection.

Cast: Lino Ventura, Paul Meurisse, Simone Signoret, Jean-Pierre Cassel, Claude Mann, Paul Crauchet, Christian Barbier Director: Jean-Pierre Melville Screenwriter: Jean-Pierre Melville Distributor: The Criterion Collection Running Time: 145 min Rating: NR Year: 1969 Release Date: April 7, 2020 Buy: Video

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